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Correspondence Regarding the Norway Pavilion

A couple of weeks ago I sent a letter to the Norwegian embassy in Washington about the Norway pavilion in Epcot. For a while now, rumors have circulated that Disney plans to remake the 1988 Norwegian seafaring ride Maelstrom into a Frozen attraction. Needless to say I’m not fond of this idea. Here’s my e-mail:

To whom it may concern,

I am a citizen of the United States and resident of Central Florida. One of my interests is the history and cultural relevance of theme parks and other tourist attractions.

It has become clear that the Walt Disney Company intends to strip the Norway pavilion in the Epcot theme park in Orlando of its long-held focus on Norwegian culture and tourism. It is very likely that the pavilion will become a synergistic advertisement for the Frozen animated film. I am writing to implore the Norwegian government to open a dialogue with the Walt Disney Company to put a stop to this change and allow the Norway pavilion to continue to represent your country, spur tourism and inform visitors about Norway’s beautiful and rich culture. Last year over 11 million people visited Epcot. Norway’s continued presence in the park is an incredible opportunity to showcase your nation and it’s people. It would a monumental shame to lose this opportunity.

Here is the response I received this morning from the Consul General of Norway, Jostein Mykletun, Ph. D:

Your e-mail of July 11 to the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Washington, D.C. has been forwarded to the Royal Norwegian Consulate General in Houston, the reason being that Florida is part of the Houston Consulate’s Jurisdiction, .

We appreciate your interest in Norway and the Norway pavilion in the Epcot theme park in Orlando.  This pavilion has for several years been the subject of discussion involving relevant Norwegian authorities and other central stakeholders, including also the Walt Disney Company.  Among the issues has been the question of financing an upgraded pavilion at Epcot, better portraying modern, contemporary Norway. Part of the discussion has also pertained to formal legal rights and related business terms in the shaping and running of an upgraded pavilion.

We will share your concerns with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Oslo, requesting that your expressed views, along with those of other engaged U.S. residents and citizens voicing opinions on the matter at hand, be communicated to those Norwegian authorities being the closest to potentially take action.  Any judgement on the value of continued or enhanced Norwegian presence at Epcot, will most probably be done as part of a broader assessment of which promotional measures and strategies, at what cost, are likely to yield the highest returns in terms positive branding of Norway in the U.S.

Again, thank you for your expressed interest and advice.


JosteinMykletun, Ph.DConsul General of Norway Royal Norwegian ConsulateGeneral3410 West Dallas StreetHouston, Texas 77019


I sent a similar e-mail to the Walt Disney Company. I have yet to receive a reply.


Why Are We Here?

Epcot Center celebrates human achievements and innovation born from imagination. It is a showplace dedicated to entertain we hope, with a purpose. Our goals for EPCOT Center are quite clear, we want to first entertain, then inform and inspire all who come here and above all, to instill in our guests a new sense of belief and pride in mankind’s ability to shape a world that offers real hope to people everywhere in the world.

– E. Cardon Walker

Welcome to Epcot

Epcot Dedication (Photo credit: IceNineJon)

The words Card Walker spoke at Epcot Center’s dedication in the fall of 1982 established a public purpose for the company’s latest monumental endeavor. Epcot Center was a new concept in theme parks, but not completely unfamiliar to the world or even to Disney. Unlike the Magic Kingdom and Disneyland before it, which were predominantly designed to immerse visitors in the absolute fantasy of fairy tales and flying elephants, Epcot’s intent was to feed into the feeling of a world’s fair. Since the 1850s fairs and expositions were used as a method of garnering support for new technology, promoting tourism and creating a public face for corporations and countries. Without taking anything away from their impact on human culture, world’s fairs were basically monumental advertisements.

NY World's Fair 1964-1965

NY World’s Fair 1964-65 (photo credit: PLCjr)

Walt Disney’s original vision for Epcot was a technological utopia. It would be clean, bright, efficient and was a direct output of the marketing tone of the New York World’s Fair which Disney played a large role in shaping. In contrast to the Fair, Epcot would be a real functioning city with sleek transportation, clean air and a culture that fostered learning and advancement. Walt’s death in the last days of 1966 ended whatever slim chance Epcot had of existing in his image. Fast forward thirteen years through Vietnam, the counterculture movement, disco and we arrive in the late 1970’s and the end product of the idea of Epcot. In the months preceding and during the three years that had passed since Walt Disney Productions had broken ground on the project, the world had experienced upheavals that ran across the gain of the optimistic message that the park intended to communicate. In the summer of 1979, just months before the first shovel was turned on the Epcot project, Three Mile Island rocked the world’s collective faith in emerging energy. During construction, the Iran hostage crisis began and ended, “Imagine” songwriter John Lennon was gunned down in New York, and attempts were made on the lives of President Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II. In 1981, AIDS was first observed in the United States and later led to a worldwide fear of a viral pandemic. These were problems no theme park could ever tackle head on.

In the midst of these events, Epcot Center, now a park themed to technology and culture, opened with celebration and Walker delivered his ambitious mission statement. The dedication speech jived well with the corporate sponsored attractions and exhibits that made up Epcot Center. The Universe of Energy backed by Exxon and World of Motion from General Motors entertained with a history of oil production and celebrated human advances in transportation only three years after the second U.S. oil crisis. The Land spoke of sustainable farming and new methods of agriculture while world hunger became an ever-present subject in the news. Famine had rocked Ethiopia and the West was watching on the news every night. CommuniCore showcased technological innovations that hadn’t really been part of the American thought process since the future home concepts that were popular in post World War II America.

Cyclically, Americans embrace putting on cultural blinders in the years that follow social or economic turmoil. Epcot was conceived at the beginning of an upheaval and became reality near the end. Just as some Epcotesque park would’ve likely been popular in the mid-century as a reaction to the turmoil of the ’40s, it was a solid response to the social climate the baby boomers had grown up in. The park appealed to adults nostalgically before they’d ever seen it. It was positivity and reality suspended in a most artful way. The architecture, music, and message all pointed at a grander tomorrow and promised it was right around the corner. It wasn’t a think tank for ideas or solutions to problems. It was just a warm arm that seemed to imply that great things were already in the works and the children of this generation would inherit technological and social paradise. Epcot actively chose to ignore the negative. There was an implied hope for the future but without any real plans to get there. It felt good and that was good enough.

A Light in the Attic

There’s a light on in the attic.
Thought the house is dark and shuttered,
I can see a flickerin’ flutter,
And I know what it’s about.
There’s a light on in the attic.
I can see it from the outside.
And I know you’re on the inside… lookin’ out.

– Sheldon Allan Silverstein

Siemens VIP Center Conference Room Projection Screens

Siemens VIP Center Conference Room

Each of the original sponsored pavilions in EPCOT Center’s Future World included a lounge for executives and employees of the sponsor company to meet and relax while visiting the park. Most guests would never notice these private spaces since they were often hidden behind unassuming doors or in less than noticeable spaces, often on the second floor up above the guests. This tradition continued through the years to include later additions like the Red Planet Room inside HP’s Mission: SPACE and Test Track’s VIP area which lets visitors look down on guests as they enjoy the ride. Over the years, as pavilions lost their sponsors, many of the lounges closed their doors and became storage or event space. Often, park management transformed these rooms into offices for operations.

Siemens VIP Center Illuminated Walkway at Spaceship Earth in Epcot

Siemens VIP Center Illuminated Walkway

The corporate lounges for United Technologies (Living Seas), MetLife (Wonders of Life), Kodak (Journey Into Imagination), and Kraft (The Land) are still largely unused by any guest. The only original attraction that still includes an operating VIP area is Spaceship Earth. Situated above Project Tomorrow, Spaceship Earth’s post-show, is the Siemens VIP Center, originally called Base21. The entrance is just beyond the exterior door on Project Tomorrow’s west side and might as well be any other “Cast Members Only” door. Once inside, the contrast to the rest of Epcot becomes obvious. The small room is clean and bright and has obviously not been exposed to the wear and tear of millions of guests. Inside the door is a wall mounted information screen with a numeric keypad. A PIN code, generated by a Siemens employee, allows access to the VIP Center. Directly across from the entrance is a frosted glass door etched with the Siemens corporate logo. Once the guest keys in the PIN, the room lighting changes from white to a deep red, and the frosted glass door becomes transparent. Seconds later, the formerly opaque door sides open automatically. Guests then pass into a room with a decorative corporate displays, a couch, and beyond a spiral staircase leading up next to an elevator. Visitors to the VIP Center barely have enough time to take in this scene and process what just happened, before the elevator opens its doors and live voice invites the guest on board.

Innoventions Plaza from Siemens VIP Center at Spaceship Earth in Epcot

View of Innoventions Plaza

After a short ride up, the elevator opens into a reception area. To the left is a concierge desk where guests have their VIP status confirmed by a Siemens host and are given a short tour of the space before being given free run of the lounge. Beyond the front desk, a small beverage and snack area sits beyond a ring of lounge seats. Moving further, inset into an interactive wall of screens explaining what Siemens does, are, in this writer’s opinion, the nicest restrooms Epcot has to offer. A wireless cell phone charging station is another perk of access, and the Siemens host provides an adapter to anyone who asks. A short hallway curves toward the lounge. On the interior arced wall is another display using more electrochromic glass. A guest accessible touch panel controls some of the interior lighting, including an illuminated glass block floor that curves around from the entrance, back into the areas set aside for conference meetings and presentations. The conference room includes retractable projectors that deploy down from the ceiling and a videoconferencing system. Once in the main room, a large, curved wall of picture windows overlooks Innoventions plaza, providing an excellent view of the tarps above and pin trading station below. How many fans of EPCOT Center would love to see that view from 1982? Thought so. By far the best reason to find a way to visit the Siemens VIP Center is the exclusive access to Spaceship Earth. Behind the concierge desk is a door that leads to a small set of stairs. This is where it starts to feel like Epcot controlled territory again. At the bottom of the stairs, a sign greets guests informing them that they “are now entering the attraction area”. Beyond the door, guests find themselves in the unload area of Spaceship Earth where a Cast Member is waiting to direct visitors into their time machine vehicle for a wait-free ride.

Stairs in Journey Into Imagination at Epcot

Stairs to the former Image Works

While it is completely appropriate for paying sponsors to have these private rooms inside the park, it’s unfortunate that the lounges in the pavilions that lack sponsors haven’t been used in much of any way. Even the Siemens lounge sits empty and quiet much of the time. Underused space inside some of the most expensive real estate in Orlando just doesn’t make good sense. Original EPCOT Center fans would love to visit these hidden spaces. Just seeing the park from a different vantage point would be a huge thrill, and opening these rooms up and using the space for attractions for all guests would create a new draw in Future World, one that it needs badly. The second floor of Journey Into Imagination, once home to Image Works, an interactive playground of color, sight, and sound, is the most glaring example of empty attic space in Epcot. The cordoned stairwell in Imagination’s gift shop taunts guests who remember the glory days of the Rainbow Corridor as it seems to cry out for a new reason to exist. A re-imagined Image Works could even leverage some of same technology Siemens has already brought into the park, albeit currently only for it’s private guests. Additionally, the Siemens lounge includes technology that is current, but feels more futuristic than the rest of Future World! That’s a problem. These empty spaces provide a great opportunity to create complete pavilions, as opposed to just rides, opening more exhibits and areas where guests can wonder at their own pace. Visitors to Epcot want new experiences in new spaces and opportunity to be inspired by their surroundings. If only Future World could attract the attention of the one additional corporate sponsor it really needs, the Walt Disney Company.

The Active Future World Experience

Future World

A Monorail circles Spaceship Earth.

For years after its opening in 1982, Future World existed as EPCOT Center’s corporate sponsored, idealized look at the world that was always right around the corner. Educational and entertaining, Future World included major pavilions dedicated to the sciences, each with its own ride attraction. The Bell Systems sponsored Spaceship Earth, a massive geodesic sphere devoted to communication, stood as the park’s icon. Spaceship Earth housed a slow-moving ride through the sphere’s interior, where animatronic figures played out the story of human history from the stone age to the information age. Exxon presented the Universe of Energy, which made use of a massive bank of rotating projection screens and animatronic dinosaurs. General Motors showcased their automobiles at World of Motion and Kodak sponsored a pavilion encouraging guests to use their imagination, and take lots of pictures. Kraft Food’s Listen to the Land ride included a tour of agricultural techniques inside a domed greenhouse, while General Electric’s Horizons merged all the other pavilion’s themes into one with a look at life and human relationships in the future.

Without exception, these rides followed the model established by the classic WED designed dark rides of Disneyland and Magic Kingdom. A guest climbs aboard a vehicle, and is slowly moved through scenes set with a mixture of three-dimensional animatronic figures and props, as well as screen projections and matte paintings. The guest experience on one of these classic rides was like moving in and out of a stage performance. Viewers meandered in and around the life-size dioramas without fear of distracting the performers or obstructing their neighbors view. Each ride created a slightly different experience based on wherever the viewer decided to focus his attention at any given point in the journey. The amount of content included in each attraction was more than a guest could ever take in before being shuttled off to the next scene. In addition, the viewer defined transitions between these observed details changed each time, further altering the linear memory of the observer. These attractions created an “Active Viewer Experience”. The choices the viewer made about what to see, when, and in what order, modified the experience each time. The result was attractions that could be visited again and again, without them becoming stale or repetitive.

Horizons Building circa 1994.

General Electric presents Horizons (Wikipedia)

Future World’s pinnacle Active Viewer attraction was Horizons, opening a year after the rest of EPCOT Center, it relied heavily on animatronic and diorama elements, but set them in a rich, realized environment, as opposed to the exhibit style of attraction threaded together with narration that earlier Future World attractions had used. Matte paintings of the fantastical Brava Centauri and Mesa Verde filled in the dark spaces that Spaceship Earth and World of Motion left blank. The rider saw the same scenes from multiple viewpoints with repeated back-and-forth conversational dialog. Instead of gaps between vignettes, the designers created overlaps. Horizons added another viewer controlled element, the choice of visiting one of three future world destinations in the form of a point-of-view film displayed for each ride vehicle. In hindsight, it was this projection screen technology that would become the go to form for future attractions in EPCOT Center and later Epcot. Horizons, ironically, may have sown the seeds of demise for the Active Viewer experience.

World of Motion

General Motors presents World of Motion

In 1996, World of Motion closed and in 1999, Test Track, a thrill ride that simulated riding along in a car being put through a series of safety and performance tests, replaced it. Horizons closed in 1999 and Mission: SPACE, a thrill ride that simulates a launch and journey to Mars on a spacecraft, took its place in Future World. Both Test Track and Mission: SPACE are, for the most part, a “Passive Viewer Experience”. Upon opening, Test Track relied heavily on movement of the vehicle to entertain the rider. It included some sparse set design, but lacked a detailed environment. Test Track recently underwent a refurbishment and reopened at Epcot late last year. The aesthetics of the ride changed, but the ride experience itself is still fairly passive. Interactive elements added to the pre-show engage the guest, but thrill is still the point. Mission:SPACE relies entirely on a ride mechanism that generates g-forces and the intense physical effect of a motion simulator. Although an argument could be made for the Living Seas attraction, no Future World ride since Horizons has managed to create a true Active Viewer Experience.

The shift to Passive Viewer Experiences (Mission:SPACE and to a lesser degree Test Track) create a similar ride experience every time. The the viewer doesn’t need to decide what details to focus on. The ride decides for you, and it’s the same experience on each subsequent ride. Apart from the motion, Mission: SPACE is entirely a film. Each ride is exactly the same as the last. Test Track allows the rider to choose what to look at, but because speed is the main element, details are few. Is the redesigned Test Track is a true design pivot in Future World? A return to more rich, Active Viewer content, or is it just a bump in the road of the Passive Viewer Future World?

1982 Magic Kingdom & EPCOT Center Snapshots

Photos from my December 1982 trip to Magic Kingdom and EPCOT Center. Slideshow

Epcot Postcards – World Showcase


Transitional Voyage Distinctive architectural structures blend old world charm with modern designs at Epcot Center. The Friendship II glides past Canada and the United Kingdom crossing from Future World into World Showcase.


Canada, World Showcase Surround yourself with Canada at a new Circle-Vision 360 movie, shop for Eskimo crafts at a trading post, stroll through “Victoria Gardens” and dine in a wine cellar.


United Kingdom, World Showcase Sup on British fare and raise a pint of ale at the pub. Stroll cobblestone lanes and see eight different architectural styles. Linger in quaint shops packed with British goods.


France, World Showcase Boulevard shops feature wines, perfumes, and artwork. Renowned chefs host an elegant restaurant, and a new romantic movie takes you on a soaring tour.


The Kingdom of Morocco, World Showcase This tribute to the mystery of this exotic land features minarets, market stalls and a delectablé menu, all presented with the warmth of traditional Moroccan hospitality.


Japan, World Showcase A pagoda rises among sculpted gardens and colorful koi fish ponds. Shop in a store dating from the 17th century and try teppanyaki dining in a setting recalling the Shishinden Shrine.


American Adventure A cast of 35 Audio-Animatronics figures, giant-screen movies, and the magic of a Broadway show bring to life the dramatic story of America and its people.


Italy, World Showcase Amid Renaissance splendour, feast on Italian cuisine, shop for Venetian crystal and enjoy the Commedia dell’ Arte troupe.


Germany, World Showcase The calm waters of World Showcase Lagoon creates a mirror image of Germany at Epcot Center. Inside the pavilion, the re-creation of a traditional German Biergarten celebrates Oktoberfest all year long!


China, World Showcase Inside the “Temple of Heaven,” behold Wonders of China that surround you through the movie magic of Circle-Vision 360.


Mexico, World Showcase Within the “ancient” pyramid, sail the “River of Time,” enjoy traditional entertainment and cuisine, and shop for handcrafts on the Plaza.


Mystical symbols from an ancient culture adorn the pyramid that welcomes guests to Mexico, part of the World Showcase at Epcot.

Epcot Postcards – Future World


Bridge to the Future The creation of fossil fuels is part of the Universe of Energy in Future World. The story of the search for new energy sources even extends into the reaches of outer space.


One Little Spark In Journey Into Imagination, Dreamfinder and Figment escort you aboard the “Dream Machine”, enjoy 3-D “Magic Journeys”, and the Image Works spurs creativity with light and sound.


World of Motion, Future World This moving presentation follows the progress of transportation through the ages. Man’s advances are shown as scenes from the past lead on to experimental vehicles of the 21st Century.


Spaceship Earth Ride a “time machine” through this 18-story “geosphere”, where an Audio-Animatronics story of communications comes to life.


Future World A Sleek Monorail circles Spaceship Earth. Inside the 18-story “geosphere” is a “time machine” ride through an Audio-Animatronics story of communications.


Universe of Energy Aided by solar panels on the roof, “ride on sunshine” back to the dinosaur era. See Nature’s dramatic enfoldment of fossil fuels into the Earth. And travel the world to view new energy ideas.


Land Explore creative partnerships with the land. Set sail for “Tomorrow’s Harvest.” Sing along at a show that has the whole town cooking. And enjoy country-store fun, food and flavor.


Communicore, Future World Join in an Electronic Forum, tap new energy ideas, preview your vacations electronically, try out information innovations, and go “backstage” to see Epcot’s fascinating computers.


Journey Into Imagination Ride into wondrous realms of creativity, challenge your imagination in a playground of the future, and take “3-D” Magic Journeys through the Looking Glass of the Mind.


Future World Discover how today’s dreams can become tomorrow’s realities. Entertainment adventures explore communications, energy, transportation, the land, imagination and much more.